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Fundamental Spatial Functions

Fundamental (or basic) GIS functions are those considered to be useful for a wide range of applications. They can be considered as primary analytical operations, spatial data-handling “primitives” (Berry 1986), or GIS “tools” (Dangermond 1986). May GIS packages are equipped with all or most of these spatial analysis operations. These operations are invariable low-level geometric operations and could be thought of simply as tools that build relationships among and between spatial objects. Fundamental GIS functions include measurement, (re)classification, scalar and overlay operations, neighborhood and connectivity operations.

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